Astronomical dating

I have absolutely no problems with regard to the claims (a) and (b).

With these Kate Spence has, indeed, introduced some interesting new ideas that merit careful examination and critical appraisal.

2450 BC - 25 years." To be fair, the idea that the precession of the equinoxes could be used to accurately date the Great Pyramid is not new.

It is original neither to myself nor to Kate Spence.

A fraction of a degree here or there is not unexpected, and such 'errors' may or may not have to do with precession.

If anything, it merely shows that the builders of the Great Pyramid were better and more accurate engineers than their successors. In truth, the misalignments are far too small to attribute to deliberation rather than mere engineering tolerances.

270-1: "In previous articles it was shown that the two southern shafts pointed to Orion's belt and Sirius..two northern shafts were directed to the pole star, Alpha Draconis, and to the head of Ursa Minor (Kochab).... 8: "As for the two northern shafts, these were directed to the pole star, Alpha Draconis, and the 'head' of Ursa Minor (Kochab)...

All these alignments work for the same precessed epoch of c. All these alignments work out for the same precessional epoch of c.

Dozens of newspapers and websites announced yesterday (16 November 2000) a major 'breakthrough discovery' by Kate Spence, a Ph D researcher at Cambridge University that was published in the journal Nature.

The main 'breakthrough' hailed by the media concerns the accurate dating of the Great Pyramid by modeling the precession of the transit of two stars, Kochab (in Ursa Minor) and Mizar (in Ursa Major), at the north meridian of the sky.

According to Kate Spence: "The Ancient Egyptian Pyramids of Giza have never been accurately dated...

Modeling the precession of these stars yields a date to the start of construction of the Great Pyramid that is accurate to 5yr, thereby providing an anchor for the Old Kingdom chronologies" (Nature, Vol. In addition, Kate makes two further claims: (a) that the simultaneous transit of these two stars was used by all the Pyramid builders of the Old Kingdom from the 4th Dynasty onwards to anchor their pyramids to true north, and (b) that because of this technique the alignments of their pyramids fell into 'error' due to the precessional shift of the stars (which only aligned in simultaneous transit with true north in 2467 BC).

Here is a reproduction of Plate 15a: In actual fact, the use of the upper culmination of the star Kochab when it is directly over the north celestial pole and also over the star Mizar in order to calculate the age of the Great Pyramid was employed in several articles published by myself in the Oxford journal Discussions in Egyptology (DE) in 1993-4. 26 pp.5-6), which used the Pole Star and precession to suggest, "the age of the great pyramid must be re-dated to 2475-2425BC, thus average c.2450BC." Then in 1994 I published three further articles in DE (vol. 28, 1994, p.7: "Precessional calculations show that, with a slope of 39 degrees, in c.

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